Membrane Transport

Published by Darron Toy on



Parminder hostile again biology and medicine videos please make sure to subscribe join the forum in group to latest videos visit Facebook on Monday huh sue Dugan I'm here please like and also you can ask questions answer questions and post some interesting things including your out words and you can change the quality settings sometimes one for better graphics of these videos this video is going to be on membrane transport and the different forms types so membrane transport it's important that the cell transport water in and out to maintain osmolarity also to transport glucose for example inside to utilize energy and to make ATP but how do these molecules move in well membrane transports help them move in you can say and there are a few types of movement transport there's passive diffusion there's facilitated diffusion there's active transport where we can have primary active transport secondary active transport and translocation and then we have are just the fourth one bulk transport the question is why do we need these different types of membrane transporters why can't the molecules itself just pass through well actually there are some molecules that can just diffuse through without any help or facilitated help of membrane proteins so for example if we have the extra solar fluid here there are hydrophobic molecules and these are things such as oxygen carbon dioxide and nitrogen and they can easily diffuse through via diffusion without the assistance of membrane transporters membrane proteins then we have small uncharged polar molecules and these are things such as water urea and glycerol and they too can diffuse through the membrane lipid bilayer without the help of membrane transporters however when we go to large uncharged polar molecules such as glucose it's large and to polar to pass through and so it can't and therefore requires a transfer of protein membrane transport and necessary for glucose to go through the cell because glucose is necessary for glycolysis and therefore to produce ATP for energy similarly we have ions such as cations and anions sodium potassium calcium chloride negative chloride also that cannot pass through because of its charge and so requires the help of membrane transporters to go through this scale I'm drawing shows how permeable molecules are the top being highly permeable molecules to low permeable Perm permeable molecules and these numbers are drawing they are permeability coefficients which is how many centimeters a second a molecule can move through the lipid bilayer so for example if a molecule is highly permeable 10 to the negative 2 it can move 10 to the negative 2 centimeters a second through the lipid membrane which is very fast considering a membrane is in nanometers not centimeters so 7 centimeters is pretty massive if the molecule was has low permeability such as 10 to the negative 14 that is so slow that's 10 to the negative 14 centimeters a second water moves at about 10 to the negative 2 centimeters a second and that is why it can diffuse without any facility to help through the lipid bilayer glycerol similarly is about 10 to the negative 6 10 to the negative 5 centimeters a second which is still pretty fast glucose molecules move very slow now at about 10 to the negative 7 10 to the negative 8 second in a second and so they would require a membranous order to go through potassium and sodium at about 10 to the negative 11 10 to the negative 12 senators a second are very very slow and that is why we always see ions moving through the membrane bilayer via our membrane transporters now assuming a lipid membrane bilayer is ten nanometers across this would mean that it is 10 times 10 to the negative 7 centimeters across which bathe simply means it is 10 to the negative 6 centimeters and using this amount we can measure how long it takes in seconds for each of these molecules to go through a 10 nanometer length membrane so for example for water it takes ten to the negative four seconds to pass through a 10 nanometer lipid membrane which is very fast and spontaneous similarly glycerol takes only one second to pass through a 10 nanometer membrane however potassium and sodium these ions take 10 to the 6 seconds to move through 10 nanometer membrane which is equivalent to about 280 hours it moves it takes to move through 10 nanometer membrane which is very very slow but essentially or theoretically these ions actually do move at a rate through the lipid membrane bilayer so these actually go through but very very slowly and so we can just safely say that they don't move at all and that they always require a membrane protein transport going back to the different types of membrane transporters over here we'll just go through a brief run-through at the different types we have so here we have the lipid bilayer and the extrasolar food and intracellular fluid now the first type of membrane transport is the passive transport and this is essentially diffusion of a substance across the cell membrane you can say with that it can be with the help of a membrane trainer with an actual protein or it or not because some of these molecules such as oxygen can pass through quite easily and then we have number 2 facilitated diffusion which is highly specific and it requires the help of proteins and these ions or molecules that move through actually transport down its concentration gradient so for example here we have a channel protein channel and then we have high concentrations of protons hydrogen's on the in extrasolar fluid and so simply enough this channel protein will assist hydrogen's to move down into the intracellular fluid down its concentration gradient and then we have another type of protein transporter which once a proton binds to it it makes a conformational change so switches there for releasing the hydrogen in the intracellular fluid and this transporter is known as a carrier protein which is a part of the facilitated diffusion then we have active transport which uses energy to move molecules through the membrane bilayer and usually involves ATP and also there is also electro electro and chemical gradients involved in this process so typically ions are involved so for example we have a sodium in the extracellular fluid it can bind to this special protein where the protein will make a conformational change basically flipping over but this process requires ATP as you can see energy and so sodium can be put into the intracellular fluid and as you can see it requires ATP this protein is known as a pump another type of protein active transporter is a co transporter but this doesn't necessarily need ATP and the movement usually involves two molecules so for example sodium and iodide can move simultaneously through the lipid bilayer BioCode transporter and the movement is actually facilitated by one molecules are going down its concentration gradient to pump another molecule through in this case sodium gets pumped through to help I died to get pump get pump in types of code transporters as well next we have bulk transport which is essentially exocytosis of endocytosis so for example uh this is an example of endocytosis where molecules get brought into the cell by the membrane forming a vesicle and that concludes this video on membrane transport however I've only briefly talked about the different types of membrane transporters and it might have been pretty confusing so I've provided links to each of these different types of membrane transporters and these video other videos will talk more deeply into the different types passive transport facility diffusion active transport and bulk transport specifically endocytosis and it will also show you examples so please click on the link provided in the video just click on it please like comment and subscribe thank you


33 Comments

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Tranquility99 · May 15, 2019 at 7:39 am

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