A Tour of the Periodic Table

Published by Darron Toy on

hi it's mr. Andersen and today I'm going to take you on a tour of the periodic table a book that I've been reading I'm not quite done but it's really fascinating is called the disappearing spoon it's written by this guy over here his name is Sam keen if you want more information you can go to Sam keen calm its needs got a lot of trivia non periodic table but it's essentially about the history of the periodic table in other words it's not the science which I'm going to talk about today it's more about the people who discover the elements it goes all the way from the Manhattan Project to mr. Bunsen the inventor of the Bunsen burner and mr. Lewis famous for Lewis diagram so it's fascinating read on and it's getting at the history behind this which is the periodic table periodic table we're going to come back to this in just a second and we'll review some of the things from this podcast the thing you may be puzzled about is what's up with the name of the title the disappearing spoon disappearing spoon is actually written about this element it's called gallium it's a poor metal and the neat thing about gallium it is that it has a really low melting point and so if you mix your tea with the spoon made of gallium so let's take a look at this video over here on the side the minute it goes in the tea you can see that it starts to turn into a liquid and then kind of melt away thus the disappearing spoon the problem with this I was like you are saying well let me google it let me buy one of these spoons it seems cool it's also highly radioactive and so it may not only be a disappearing spoon but it may be a disappearing hand if you deal with gallium too much so let's get to the periodic table so here's our periodic table periodic table first of all the vertical columns are going to be called groups and so this would be 1 & 2 & 3 and it goes all the way over here to number 18 which is on the side and the periods are going to go down the side so this would be 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 and so we're going to see these periodic properties in other words as we go and look period to period period you'll find that there are similar characteristics let's go through it then and I'm going to try to use different colors and highlight each of the different areas so let's start with the first month first one are going to be these metals these metals are called the alkali metals and it goes all the way from lithium at the top to cesium at the bottom so these are called alkali metals alkali metals all have one valence electron that means that they're highly reactive and so in this picture down here we've got lithium sodium all the way through cesium if you want to have fun on YouTube just look at alkali metals and you'll see people thrown into water and you get these huge explosions and that's because of their valence electrons next to them are called the alkaline earth metals and so let me advance our picture so these are the alkaline earth metals it goes all the way at the top with beryllium all the way down to the bottom at radium so this is alkaline these all have two valence electrons and so they're reactive as well they tend to form oxides with oxygen magnesium calcium all these are important in living things and they tend to be fairly stable in other words we can we can find them on our planet in a raw form next up we've got the halogens halogens are going to be over here on this side so this would be a halogen right here fluorine chlorine bromine iodine astatine these all have seven valence electrons so that means they would love to get one more electron so they're not super stable chlorine pictured here in this block is in a liquid form it normally occurs as a gaseous form it's a nasty gas was used as a poison during World War one and these are the halogens right here highly reactive right next to them however are the most unreactive of the elements that we have and these are going to be called the noble gases so helium neon argon Krypton xenon and radon all of these have eight valence electrons and these are going to be called the noble gases um really stable on they've got complete outer energy levels or valence shells and so there be really happy unlike their halogen neighbors which are right next to them okay cool thing about them if you look down here at this picture you put any of the noble gases in a tube run electricity through it they're going to fluoresce as electrons kind of move to higher energy levels and then fall back down so if you look at neon lights or lasers are all made up of these millville gases and if you ever heard of inert gases inert gases are gases that don't react with anything we use those in like MIG welding be an application of that okay next are the ssin ops schnapps are a way that I like to remember the nonmetals and so I'm going to circle these so here's carbon then I'm going to go way over here and circle hydrogen and then we're going to do nitrogen and oxygen and phosphorus and sulfur and selenium so these are all called the nonmetals the reason I wrote down schnapps is that these are all things that are vital inside living material so carbon is what we're made up of nitrogen makes our amino acids oxygen is used to get energy out of our food we use phosphorus in our DNA sulfur in our proteins and even selenium which is not part of schnapps we need micro amounts of that and it's been linked to deficiencies in selenium can actually perhaps cause cancer okay next one then are going to be the transition metals and so if we were to circle those on here transition metals are going to be all these down here these are the transition metals transition metals have weird numbers of electrons in other words the ones that they're showing outside are variable and so they all look the same but they all have different characteristics and so these are called the transition metals example would be gold and so gold is going to be right here as a transition metal and here's a block this is the largest block ever of gold I think it's 250 kilograms so like 600 pound bar of gold neat things again that verticality silver is right above that coppers right above that they have similar valence electrons and so these are all going to be similar on next group men on the periodic table is going to be the poor metals and so if we go to where those poor metals are on poor metals let me find a good color poor metals are going to be let's go right here and here here these going to be the poor metals in here and so metals are going to be over in this group this is gallium right here this is a picture of gallium that was that disappearing spoon remember that melted away right at the beginning um these are going to be somewhat good conductors but not as good as the true metals that we find over here and the transition metals next group then are going to be the metalloids and so a good color might be red if I could find that there we go so the metalloids are going to be here so that's boron silicon germanium arsenic antimony tellurium and polonium these are all going to be the metalloids and these are all semiconductors and what that means is that they conduct electricity but they don't fully conduct electricity I've got a block of one of them this is actually a log or a large amount of silicon and so this is a silicon crystal what they do is they grow it into these great cylinders and then they slice it off and then they can stamp silicon chips out of it so it feels a little bit lighter than it would if this is just a true metal like iron for example and if we run electricity through it we can kind of control the amount of electricity that we run through that because it's a metalloid or a semiconductor and then the last thing I put on here was uranium there's a more a general trend that as we go farther and farther and farther down the periodic table our size is going to get larger and larger and larger so when we get down to things like uranium these are actually uranium cubes that were used in the Manhattan Project atoms are going to get larger and larger and larger so when we go down to the bottom this is uranium most uranium is in the form of you rhenium 238 that means it has 92 protons and tons and tons of neutrons and so the farther we go down the periodic table things tend to get radioactive in other words parts of the intent to decay or to fall apart one other interesting part here this is the lanthanides and the actinides the way a periodic table really should be organized is that these two rows here at the bottom should actually be inserted here and the reason that most periodic tables don't show it that way is it would make our periodic table incredibly long and so really wouldn't display well on poster


LogicED · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

Hello Mr Anderson, I'm Mr Smith!

Lzabo Bobo · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

Wish u r in khan academy app

Connor Gaming · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

What are elements Uun and Uuu? I know what Uub and Uuq are but what are the elements Uun and Uuu?

Chloe Matthews · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

You come here when you're meant to be learning the periodic table, but instead you're watching somebody else learn it.

Srikar Gorty · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

Why'd you stop making videos

Kristie Goree · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

thee are 19, not 18 dang I am smarter than you

Umme Laila · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

Can anyone tell me about electronic configuration?

Ja Nein · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

You’ve ruined my life

TAIVEN DUWAIK-ALBRIGHT · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

Jesus can walk on water. Babies are 72% water. I can walk on babies so I'm 72% Jesus. I'm also 100% in jail.

Das Carlin · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

Oh mother… can someone please tell me how to calculate the dam valence electrons? I'll need to find out the transition metals in a test and Google is shit at telling me how to calculate this.

steven stallings · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

F-1 only true proton donor?
Li+1 O3-1. ? Lithium ozide?

kuldeep kumar · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

Sir Hindi me video banaye

hfilipenk · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

more http://nauka-sn.ru/filestore/3(7)2018/FilipenkaH.R.pdf

Jacob Leboeuf · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

what a mess this tutorial is!

ali zahedi · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm


tanay chowkilla · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

Sir, isn't selenium a metalloid.

nadzirah muhsin · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

hey let just say that he is human too and human ALWAYS do mistake…

Banana King · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm


Banana King · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

noice m8

Chris The Goat · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm


Zachary.Evans · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

How to troll an idiot.

Read more

Muhammad Taha · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

Hey guy answer my question if helium has two electron in its last shell so its balance but it should be on 2nd group 1 shell 1 period is true but how its noble

hfilipenk · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

new atomic numbers https://fhenadzi.wordpress.com

mk N · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

Good one.

cyroyarn Plays · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

The vid does not seen finished.

bruce robertson · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

One of gallium's isotopes is stable and the other isotope has a half-life of 2.7×10^26 years. Very UNradioactive.

Cabdiraxmaan Media Production · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm


Lillyflower8 · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm


John · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

Its a shame because you've clearly made an effort with this video but the gallium comment without explanation damages the credibility of everything else you say.

Shirley Succubus · May 15, 2019 at 3:22 pm

diceering egg

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